All clavichord photographs by Heinz Schaub, CH – Küngoldingen. These together with many detail photographs have been incorporated in a limited edition book, “Paul Simmonds – Clavichord Collection”. Further details on request.

Triple-fretted clavichord by Johann Adam Türig, made in Wil (SG) Switzerland in 1680

For more information about this maker and his instruments, see my article in Clavichord International, vol.22 no. 1, 2018, pp. 16-24


Clavichord by H. Jansen, Holmestrand, Norway, 1767

Detail of keys and soundboard

My article giving the known history and restoration of this clavichord was published in Clavichord International, vol. 14, no. 2, 2010. Unusually in the instrument making world, Jansen is known to have been a pharmacist by profession.

Clavichord after Hubert, 1771, made by Karin Richter 1986

This clavichord can be heard on my prize.winning E.W. Wolf CD, which can be sampled on my shop page.

Clavichord by Jürgen Ammer, Leipzig, 1980, after the “Silbermann” clavichord in the Markneukirchen museum, c.1750

This clavichord was one of a series of three from the workshop of Jürgen and Renate Ammer. The clavichord was later reworked by Jürgen, and the present label has only his name and the date 1987. It was retained by him as his personal instrument until his death in 2017. From 7. – 29.11.1981 it was exhibited in the Grassimuseum as part of an exhibition by the Handwerkskammer des Bezirkes Leipzig.

Anonymous Saxon pantalon clavichord, c-1770

This clavichord has much in common with the known instruments by Friderici,  and could be from his workshop. An article by me, giving the fascinating history of this clavichord together with restoration notes was published in De Clavicordio IX, 2010, and is also available from the articles page of this site.

Clavichord after Domenicus Pisaurensis, 1543, made by Karin Richter in 1993.

This clavichord can be heard  in the preview to my Renaissance Clavichord CD on the shop page.

Clavichord after Leipzig no. 10, ca.1700, made in 2001 by Peter Bavington, London.

This little clavichord, with its split-key short-octave, I find perfect for the repertoire of the late seventeenth century

Clavichord after C. Lemme, Braunschweig, 1787, made in 1926 by Otto Marx

For the background and history of this early “copy”, one of three made by Marx at this time in the Pfeiffer workshops in Stuttgart, refer to my two articles in Clavichord International, vol.17 no.2, 2013 and vol. 19 no.1 2015

Pantalon Clavichord,  mid to late eighteenth century, probably from the Hanover/Brunswick area.

This instrument is described fully in my articles in Clavichord International, Vol. 11 No. 1, pp.22-25, and the Galpin Society Journal, vol LXI, April 2008, pp.105-113

The pantalon clavichord owes its origin to the dulcimer player Pantalon Hebenstreit, who was travelling virtuoso, using a dulcimer of his own design. His influence was considerable, and a number of clavichords were built with a dulcimer, or pantalon, register, whereby a separate set of tangents to the right of the playing tangents were raised to form a second bridge resulting in an un-damped string-band. The clavichord could be played as usual, or the playing tangents could be used as little hammers. Early square pianos were also fitted with a damper raising device, operated, as on the clavichord, with a hand stop. Later this was replaced by a pedal or knee lever, which evolved into the modern sustaining pedal.

A small number of clavichords having, or having had, this device have survived – very few are playable. By way of experiment I have recorded C.P.E. Bach’s “Hamlet” Fantasy (H.75/3) on this instrument.


Harpsichord after Faby of Bologna, 1677, by Jean-Pierre Batt, Paris 1969

An early reproduction of an Italian harpsichord. The wood used for the soundboard was recycled from ship’s mast. This harpsichord can be heard on the following recordings:

    • English Virginal Music, Colin Tilney, Argo ZRG 765, 1973 (LP)
    • Dowland Transcriptions, Colin Tilney, L’Oiseau-Lyre, DLSO 552, 1979 (LP)
  • Concerning Babell & Son, Trio Basiliensis, Ars Musici AM1167, 1996. An extract  from this CD can be sampled from my shop page.

Harpsichord after Thomas Barton, 1709, by Malcolm Rose, Lewes, 1997




Square piano by Fridericus Beck, London, 1777